Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. The vaccines contain a small amount of weakened or killed virrus or bacteria or bits of lab-made protein that imitate the virus. There are two types of immunization, active immunization that can occur naturally when a person comes in contact with a microbe and passive immunization, where pre-synthesized elements of the immune system are transferred to a person so that the body does not need to produce these elements itself.
History of Vaccines
Until the 1880s vaccination referred only to smallpox, but Louis Pasteur developed immunization methods for chicken cholera and anthrax in animals and for human rabies. In 1923, Alexander Glenny perfected a method to inactivate tetanus toxin with formaldehyde. The same method was used to develop a vaccine against diphtheria in 1926.
Importance of Immunization
The professional health organizations recommend immunization due to the fact that the vaccines protect us and the people around us and they represent the best way to prevent infectious disease.
World Health Organization estimated that vaccination prevents 2 to 3 million deaths each year. Certain disease have already been eradicated by rigorous vaccination campaigns, while other are hoped to be eliminated soon. The diseases that have been wiped out by vaccines are: polyomielitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, whooping cough, measles, tuberculosis, smallpox, rabies and tetanus-diphtheria.
According to World Health Organization there are 25 diseases for which vaccines are available: anthrax, measles, rubella, cholera, meningococcal disease, influenza, diphtheria, mumps, tetanus, hepatitis A, pertussis, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, pneumoccocal disease, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, poliomyelitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, rabies, varicella and herpes zoster (shingles), human papilloma-virus, rotavirus gastroenteritis, yellow fever, japanese encephalitis, malaria, dengue fever.
Keep yourself safe and strong!